Physicist Jeff Steinhauer from the Technion (Israel) created a quantum analogue of a black hole, observed its evaporation (Hawking effect), and also discovered for the first time quantum entanglement between a pair of particles, one of which fell on the object, and the other moved away from it. The scientist published the results of his research in the journal Nature Physics.
The obtained experimental results agree with the data of numerical simulation. In particular, the radiation temperature matches the spectrum predicted by Hawking.
In the experiment, a laboratory analogue of a black hole was created – a region of supersonic motion in an ultracold Bose-Einstein condensate. This piece of space, moving at a constant speed, played a role similar to the event horizon in a black hole. As the condensate matter, Steinhauer used rubidium atoms cooled to less than one billionth of a degree above absolute zero. At these temperatures, matter behaves collectively like one large particle.
Using a laser, an Israeli scientist made a quantum liquid flow faster than the speed of sound and observed an exponential growth of a standing wave due to the interference between the counterparts of particles with negative and positive energies as a result of Hawking radiation.
Hawking radiation suggests the evaporation of a black hole due to quantum fluctuations associated with the formation of pairs of virtual particles. One particle from such a pair flies away from the black hole, and the other – with negative energy – falls into it.
Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in which the quantum states of particles (for example, spin or polarization), separated from each other, cannot be described independently. The procedure for measuring the state of one particle leads to a change in the state of another.