As it should be in the exact sciences, at the beginning there will be a little dry theory. And then we will see how this theory manifests itself in practice and how this very practice has led wonderful people to a wonderful theory. We will also talk about how, in the minds of some other scientists, from scientific discoveries, either matter disappears, leaving only one equations, then causality collapses, clearing the way for a divine miracle. We will also talk about the transition from quantity to quality, about potential barriers and branched chain reactions, and we will even see one such reaction (that is, I solemnly promise to make an explosion today). And of course, at the end of our philosophical conversation, it would be unforgivable not to touch upon the issue of the prospects for the development of the whole world and the individual human personality.
So let’s get started!
In a previous conversation, we mentioned that the problem of circumventing the difficulties of integrating the basic equations of dynamics in general gave birth to one of the methods of its solution – the introduction into consideration of some specially selected functions of coordinates and velocities, the use of which sometimes makes it possible to compose differential equations that are much simpler than the basic ones. dynamics equations (Newton). We named these functions – energy, momentum and angular momentum.
The energy, momentum and angular momentum of individual bodies, of course, are capable of changing as a result of the interaction of these bodies. But the laws of conservation of these quantities assert that the total energy, total momentum and total angular momentum of a closed system of bodies are quantitatively unchanged, no matter what movements occur in it (they say differently: they are invariant with respect to any of its movements). A closed system of bodies is a system of bodies interacting with each other, but not interacting with bodies outside this system.
Brief formulations like “quantity turns into quality” are good when the culture of education builds them into context and gives the correct interpretation. Without this, (any) concise formula is useless. A somewhat more detailed formulation of the law of the transition from quantity to quality is as follows:
“Anything retains a qualitative certainty within certain limits of a quantitative measure.”
Both the mathematician and the philosopher should know the measure, the norm and the limit. But these terms in these sciences have different meanings. In particular, the concept of “measure” in mathematics is a generalization of the concepts of length, area, volume to sets of arbitrary nature. In philosophy, a measure is the unity of the qualitative and quantitative determinations of a certain subject. Certain quantitative changes, reaching the border of the measure, turn out to be incompatible with the previous quality. Then there is a break in continuity, a qualitative leap, a transition to a new quality.
In physics, the considered energy transformations, of course, do not exhaust the scope of the law of transformation of quantity into quality. For example, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes can also serve as illustrations. If we move along a continuous sequence of quantitative values of the masses of stars, we will find abrupt breaks in the gradualness of their destinies at the end of evolution.
But philosophy is the science of the most universal laws, laws operating not only in inanimate matter, but also in social life.
An example from social life, already indicated by Marx, but not quite clearly understood: a certain level of labor productivity becomes incompatible with the previous socio-economic formation. Further growth of the productive forces becomes possible only with a qualitative change in production relations, in other words, as a result of a social revolution.
If the level of labor productivity has brought society to the objective necessity of revolution, but the latter is delayed due to subjective factors, society decays. This does not mean a halt in the development of technology. This means compensation for the growth of labor productivity in each sector with an increase in non-production costs, as a result of which labor productivity in society as a whole is marking time. The productive forces, which include not only the means of production, but also the main productive force, man, cease to develop. In particular, decaying capitalism is forced for the sake of self-preservation to close real production, to transfer capital into the sphere of financial speculation, socially useless services, to the processing of mass consciousness and military-police violence. We already had a conversation about this in the first conversation and a more detailed one – in the conversations of the cycle “political economy as an exact science.”
The field of real opportunities for personality development is limited by the framework of a particular socio-economic formation. Probably, in a capitalist society there is an opportunity to get rich if you learn to measure everything in life with money and discard some moral principles …
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