The hypothesis about the possible appearance of black holes at the Large Hadron Collider was one of the popular arguments of opponents of the launch of the accelerator, who appealed to the UN and the courts in order to prevent the launch of the installation. According to opponents of the collider, the collision of protons can form black holes that threaten to swallow the Earth.
Some of the physical theories suggesting the existence of additional “curled up” dimensions (which manifest themselves only on scales of the order of the Planck length – about 1.6 x 10 to the minus 35th power of meters) do allow for the creation of black holes in particle collisions.
In accordance with this theory, all fundamental interactions, except for gravity – electroweak and strong – remain in our four-dimensional (three space plus time) world. But the gravitational interaction can penetrate into curled up dimensions, where Newton’s laws of gravity are different.
“Gravity penetrates into extra dimensions, where it is very strong due to the smaller Planck scale compared to the usual one. Because of this strong gravity, when two partons (quarks or gluons) collide … doors can open to additional dimensions, and a microscopic black hole is formed there, “explained co-author of the study Alexei Ferapontov, employee of the Fermi National Laboratory (USA) …
Black holes in our “ordinary” macroworld arise at the final stages of the evolution of massive stars. When thermonuclear “fuel” – hydrogen or helium – burns out in such stars, the gas pressure can no longer resist gravity, and gravity “collapses” the star into a black hole. This object differs in that the second cosmic speed for it is greater than the speed of light, and no radiation and no information can leave it. The boundary at which the second cosmic speed exceeds the speed of light is called the Schwarzschild sphere. In the case of microscopic black holes in extra dimensions, the properties of gravity are such that gravitational collapse and the appearance of a Schwarzschild sphere can occur in particle collisions.
If such an event occurs, the black hole will instantly evaporate, giving rise to a “rain” of particles of ordinary matter, which can be detected by the collider detectors, in particular, the CMS detector. During a session of proton-proton collisions in 2010, scientists tracked signs of the appearance of such specific traces of the birth of black holes. However, no evidence of their appearance has been found for microscopic black holes ranging in mass from 3.5 to 4.5 teraelectronvolts for a wide range of theoretical models that allow for extra dimensions.
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